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Title Letters [manuscript]: to Governor [Israel] Pickens, Alabama, 1825 July 4
Date
Document Type Correspondence
Description From the Newberry Library Catalogue: Letter written by Edmund P. Gaines on July 4, 1825 from his post at the Creek Agency in central Georgia to Israel Pickens, Governor of Alabama. In this letter, Gaines informs Pickens that he has been instructed by the Dept. of War to assemble a force "for the protection of the neighboring frontier settlements and the friendly Indians" and to negotiate a peace settlement with the Creek Indians. In Feb. 1825 a small faction of Creek Indians, headed by William McIntosh, signed a treaty with the U.S. government ceding away all remaining lands in Georgia. The subsequent assassination in May of McIntosh by opponent Creeks resulted in internal hostilities. The letter includes discussion of Gaines’s meeting at the Great National Council of the Creeks, an extract of chief Hopothlayohola’s speech refusing to accept payment for land that was unjustly ceded, and Gaines’s sympathetic view of the Creek’s position.
Names McIntosh, William (c.1775-1825); Hopothlayohola (c.1798-1863)
Places Georgia, United States
Keywords Office of Indian Affairs, government relations, government, army, armed forces, treaty, politics, tribal government, chief, council, white settlers
Theme American Indians and the US Government; Military Encounters: Conflicts, Rebellions and Alliances
Tribe / Nation
Culture Area Southeast
Additional Information Edmund Pendleton Gaines, army officer, was born in Culpepper, Va. in 1777. Following years of service on the frontier and in the War of 1812, Gaines was promoted to brigadier-general in 1814. He later participated in the Seminole Wars, commanded the Eastern Dept. of the Army, and led a successful campaign against Black Hawk. Gaines was at odds with the War Dept. through most of his career especially in regard to methods of frontier defense. He died in New Orleans in 1849.
Library The Newberry Library
Copyright The Newberry Library
Collection The Edward E. Ayer Collection
Reference VAULT box Ayer MS 311
Catalogue Link The Newberry Library Catalogue