First Nations of Canada

The history of interaction between European colonists and native peoples in the land that was to become Canada follows broadly the same lines as in the United States, with co-operation, fuelled by trade, and competition, often resulting in warfare, existing side by side from the first.

The French in Canada were frequently in conflict with the English, later British, colonies to the east and south, and both sides acquired Indian allies. The journal of William Pote, 1745-1747 documents his capture and imprisonment by French and native forces during one such period of hostilities and the lives of the other prisoners with him. Recording life at a British post, the Orderly book of Major Joseph Frye, commander of Fort Monkton, Nova Scotia, provides an account of the guarding of the fort and other military duties, as well as measures taken against prisoners and the infractions of soldiers, and efforts to maintain discipline.

Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 1, No. 1 Apr - Jun 1995 Newspaper Mohawk
Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 1, No. 10 Nov 1969 Newspaper Mohawk
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Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 1, No. 8 Sep 1969 Newspaper Mohawk
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Appointment of Louis Rouer de Villeray as general agent of the tax farm for Canada [manuscript]: Paris, 1692 Mar. 21. 21 Mar 1692 Manuscript
Approval of the transfer of title of the seigneurie de Dombourg to Jean-François Bourdon, and census of leases on the estate [manuscript]: 1668 Oct. 8 08 Oct 1668 Official Record
Canada in the seventeeth century 1883 Printed Book Iroquois; Huron
Carte geographiqve de la Novvelle Franse / faictte par le sievr de Champlain Saint Tongois cappitaine ordinaire povr le roy en la marine, faict len 1612; Dauid Pelletier fecit 1612 Map
Chants indiens du Canada Nord-Ouest [manuscript]: recueillis, classés et notés par Emile Petitot, prêtre missionnaire au Mackenzie, de 1862-1882, 1889 1862-1882, 1889 Manuscript
Claim of the Cayuga Indians ... [manuscript] 1894-1896 Scrapbook; Correspondence; Newspaper Cayuga; Seneca
Compendio historico de las navegaciones practicadas por oficiales, y pilotos en buques de la Real Armada, sobre las costas septentrionales de las Californias [manuscript]… 1799 Manuscript Nootka
Elémens de la grammaire nipissingue [manuscript] 19 Apr 1942; 1840-1843 Manuscript; Correspondence Chippewa (Ojibway)
Extrait des registres du Conseil d’Estat [manuscript]: 1702 Nov. 13 13 Nov 1702 Official Record
I do promise to bear faith and true allegiance to His Majesty King George the third [manuscript]: Menaguashe near Fort Howe [Saint John, N.B.], 1778 Sept. 24 24 Sep 1778 Manuscript; Tribe Record Micmac; Maliseet
The Indians of Canada: their manners and customs 1892 Printed Book Blackfeet; Cree; Chinook
Journal [manuscript]: 1745 May 17-1747 Aug. 8 17 May 1745 - 08 Aug 1747 Diary; Travel Journal Wyandotte; Huron
Letter [manuscript]: Dartmouth College, [Hanover, N.H.], to Stephen Williams, Springfield, [Mass.], 1774 Nov. 12 12 Nov 1774 Correspondence
Letter [manuscript]: Edinburgh, to Hon[ora]ble Sir, 1790 Feb. 13 13 Feb 1790 Correspondence
Letter [manuscript]: London, to Oliver Noyes, Hull, Yorkshire, 1746 Jan. 8 08 Jan 1746 Correspondence Mohawk
Letter [manuscript]: Montreal, to Monsr. L’anglade, 1763 July 17 17 Jul 1763 Correspondence Ottawa
Letter [manuscript]: Montréal, to Père André-Marie Garin, [Lowell, Mass.?], [1890] 1890 Correspondence Chipewyan
Letter [manuscript]: Montreal, to Sir John Johnson, 1784 Nov. 15 15 Nov 1784 Correspondence Iroquois
Letter [manuscript]: Montreal, to Sir W[illia]m Johnson, 1761 Mar. 19 19 Mar 1761 Correspondence Chippewa (Ojibway); Mohawk
Letter [manuscript]: Residence de la Conception-aux-Hurons, to M. le curé de St. Martin, à Beauvais [France], 1639 May 25 25 May 1639 Correspondence Wyandotte; Huron
Letter from a Montagnais Indian [manuscript]: to the Hudson’s Bay Company Post, Mingan [Québec], 1861 1861 Correspondence Montagnais
Letters [manuscript]: Metlakatla, B.C., 1887-1892 11 Apr 1887; 22 Jan 1892 Correspondence Tsimshian; Kwakiutl; Haida
Letters [manuscript]: Montreal and Oka, Que., to James C. Pilling, Washington, D.C., 1879-1894 22 Apr 1879; 01 Jul 1884; 1894 Correspondence Iroquois; Algonkin
Letters and documents [manuscript]: 1834-1851 1834-1851 Correspondence Menominee
Map of Canço Harbour, the eastmost land of Nova Scotia [cartographic material] / by Captn. Young 1720 Map
[Map of Nootka Sound, British Columbia] [cartographic material] 1799 Map
Memoire sur l’etat present des abnaquis [manuscript]: [ca. 1722] 1722 Manuscript
Memoirs of a life from my notebook and journal [manuscript]: with additions and reflections, 1867 1816-1867 Diary Dakota; Chippewa (Ojibway)
Memorandum [manuscript]: Sceaux (Hauts-de-Seine), 1683 29 July 29 Jul 1683 Correspondence; Official Record Iroquois
Orderly book [manuscript]: Fort Monckton, Nova Scotia, 1755, Nov. 26 - 1756, Mar. 16 1755-1756 Official Record
Plantation reports [manuscript]: 1717-1722 1717-1722 Official Record; Correspondence Iroquois
Power of attorney [manuscript]: Fort Michilimackinac [Mackinaw City, Mich.], to Sieurs Rocheblave and Porlier, 1800 July 26 26 Jul 1800 Correspondence
Proces verbal d’assemblée des trois estats habitans ce pays qui depute Mrs. D’Auteuil, Juchereau et Pacaud sur le castor [manuscript]: Québec, 1699 Oct. 3 03 Oct 1699 Manuscript
Proclamation [manuscript]: Boston, [Mass.], 1696 July 14 14 Jul 1696 Official Record
Recensement gen[er]al [manuscript]: fait au mois de novembre mile sept cent huit de tous les sauviages de l'Acadie qui resident dans la coste de l’est et de ceux de Pintagouet et de Canibeky famille par famille, leurs ages, celuy de leurs femmes et enfants Nov 1708 Official Record
Relation de ce qui s’est passé de plus remarquable aux missions des peres de la de la [sic] Compagnie de Jesus en la Nouvelle France [l]es années 1676 & 1677 [manuscript]: [c.1677] c.1677 Travel Journal Onondaga; Oneida; Ottawa; Abenaki; Iroquois
Report of exploration and investigation along Canada's Artcic coast line from the delta of the Mackenzie River to Hudson Bay 1925-1926 Printed Book
Report of the government of British Columbia on the subject of Indian reserves 18 Aug 1875 Printed Book; Official Record
[Sentences in French and Nipissing] [manuscript] 1750 Manuscript Chippewa (Ojibway)
Standard-Freeholder, Monday, February 10, 1969 10 Feb 1969 Newspaper Mohawk
Tableau de toutes les seigneuries concédées et etablies dans l’etenduë de la Province de Québec [manuscript]: extrait des regîtres d’Intendance et du Conseil Supérieure, [between 1755 and 1760] 1755-1760 Official Record
The treaties of Canada. With the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories. Including the negotiations on which they were based, and other information relating thereto. 1880 Printed Book; Official Record
Treatise on the Indians of North America [manuscript]: written in the year 1764 1764 Official Record Shawnee; Lenni Lenape (Delaware); Seneca
The way and manner yt St. Johns was taken according to ye best information could gett of both French & English [manuscript]: report, 1709 June [sic] Jun 1709 Manuscript
We inhabitance of St. Johns Bay... have this day requested... St. Ovide de Broueland... to accorde us... the ransom of ower goods as mentioned in the artukells as undar written [manuscript] [sic] 27 Jan 1709 Official Record