The full content of this document is only available to subscribing institutions. More information can be found via

Title Indentures: know all men by these presents that I William Henry, County Judge, of the County of Mendocino, State of California ..., [192-?]
Author Henry, William
Document Type Official Record
Description From the Newberry Library Catalogue: Mendocino County Court document, dated and signed Sept. 24, 1861 by Judge William Henry, indentured nineteen Indians to A. O. Carpenter. The articles of apprenticeship lists eight men, seven women, and four children, giving their ages and lengths of servitude, ranging from ten to nineteen years. In exchange for their labor, Carpenter agreed to provide the Indians with "suitable clothing, by night as well as by day, and furnish a sufficiency of wholesome food ...".
Names Carpenter, A. O.; Andreas, James; Hunter, James; Colhi; Baptisti; Oso; Antone; Peter; Susannah; Tese; Sally; Jane; Two Sally; Lydia; George; Charlie; Bill
Places Mendocino, California, United States
Keywords indenture, law, women, clothing, children, slavery
Theme American Indians and the US Government
Culture Area California
Additional Information California’s Indenture Act of 1850 established a legal form of slavery for Indians living in the state of California. The state’s indenture law enabled white citizens to indenture Indians for terms of usually ten to fifteen years laboring only for subsistence living. Between 1850 and 1867 over 10,000 Indians were victims of this form of slavery. In compliance with the Fourteenth Amendment, this Act was stricken from state law in 1867.
Library The Newberry Library
Copyright The Newberry Library
Collection The Edward E. Ayer Collection
Reference box Ayer MS 597
Catalogue Link The Newberry Library Catalogue