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Title Papers [manuscript]: 1804-1816 (bulk 1804-1810)
Author Norton, John [Teyoninhokarawen] (b.c.1760)
Document Type Correspondence; Manuscript; Newspaper
Description From the Newberry Library Catalogue: Addresses and correspondence of John Norton, with speeches and petitions of the Grand River Indians, chiefly dating 1804-1810. Includes a contemporary copy of "The address of Teyoninkokarowen ... to the Mohawk Indians", written ca. 1805 by Norton to introduce his translation of the Gospel of John. Also a letterbook containing copies of Norton’s correspondence with British reformers (John Owen, Robert Barclay, William Wilberforce, Samuel Thornton) and with colonial administrators (William Claus, Francis Gore); and speeches and memorials of the council and chiefs of the Five Nations. Topics include: 1804-1805 England trip; Grand River land grant; conflicts with Claus; plans for Indian uplift; Mohawk gospel; and 1809-1810 Cherokee country tour. Also miscellaneous correspondence, extracts of correspondence, speeches, and newsclippings, all apparently stored in the letterbook.
Names Barclay, Robert (1751-1830); Brant, Joseph (1742-1807); Claus, William (1765-1826); Gore, Francis (1769-1852); Norton, John (b.c.1760); Owen, John (1766-1822); Thornton, Samuel (1754-1838); Wilberforce, William (1759-1833)
Places Grand River, Ontario, Canada; Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Keywords government, British North America, British Colonialism, council, speech, petition, religion, Christianity, missionary, land grant, expedition, travel, chief, Bible
Theme American Indians and the European Powers; Missionaries and Education
Tribe / Nation
Culture Area Northeast, Southeast
Additional Information Norton, also known as Teyoninhokarawen, was a schoolmaster, interpreter, Mohawk chief, army officer, and author. Probably born in Scotland of Cherokee and Scottish parents, Norton was adopted by the Mohawk chief Joseph Brant as nephew, deputy, and successor (appointed non-hereditary chief for war and diplomacy in 1799). During the early 1800s, Norton worked to confirm the grant of Grand River (Upper Canada) lands to the Five Nations, clashing with Indian Dept. official William Claus over the matter and travelling to England in 1804-1805 to plead the case. There Norton befriended several philanthropists, some active in the British and Foreign Bible Society, and translated the Gospel of John into Mohawk under their auspices. Norton later journeyed to the Cherokee country, 1809-1810, and led Five Nations warriors during the War of 1812.
Library The Newberry Library
Copyright The Newberry Library
Collection The Edward E. Ayer Collection
Reference VAULT oversize Ayer MS 654
Catalogue Link The Newberry Library Catalogue